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5th Global Nephrologists Annual Meeting, will be organized around the theme “Novel trends and advancements in treatments of renal failure”
Nephrologists 2016 is comprised of 16 tracks and 131 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Nephrologists 2016.
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.
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Kidney stones and urinary tract infections can usually be treated successfully. Unfortunately, the exact causes of some kidney diseases are still unknown, and specific treatments are not yet available for them. Sometimes, chronic kidney disease may progress to kidney failure, requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Treating high blood pressure with special medications called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors often helps to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. A great deal of research is being done to find more effective treatment for all conditions that can cause chronic kidney disease.
Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis): Minerals in urine form crystals (stones), which may grow large enough to block urine flow. It's considered one of the most painful conditions. Most kidney stones pass on their own but some are too large and need to be treated.
Acute renal failure (kidney failure): A sudden worsening in kidney function. Dehydration, a blockage in the urinary tract, or kidney damage can cause acute renal failure, which may be reversible.
Kidney cancer Renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer affecting the kidney. Smoking is the most common cause of kidney cancer.
- Track 1-1Transplant research
- Track 1-2Kidney stones
- Track 1-3Kidney cancer
- Track 1-4Diabetic kidney diseases
- Track 1-5Artificial kidney
- Track 1-6Kidney supplements
- Track 1-7Acute kidney diseases
Renal pertaining to the kidney; called also nephric. Renal clearance tests laboratory tests that determine the ability of the kidney to remove certain substances from the blood. The most commonly used is the creatinine clearance test, which is a measure of the glomerular filtration rate.
Renal failure inability of the kidney to maintain normal function, so that waste products and metabolites accumulate in the blood. This affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure called also kidney failure.
Acute renal failure occurs suddenly and may be caused by physical trauma, infection, inflammation, or exposure to nephrotoxic chemicals. Nephrotoxic agents include drugs such as penicillins, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines; radiographic iodine contrast materials; and heavy metals. These agents inflict damage on the renal tubules, causing tubular necrosis, and may also indirectly harm the tubules by producing severe vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels with ischemia of kidney tissue. Other causes of tubular ischemia include circulatory collapse, severe dehydration, and hypotension in certain compromised surgical patients. Acute renal failure may be classified as: prerenal, associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow; intrarenal, associated with renal ischemia or toxins; or postrenal, resulting from the obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys.
- Track 2-1Renal failure
- Track 2-2Renal cell carcinoma
- Track 2-3Chronic renal failure
- Track 2-4Renal cancer
- Track 2-5Renal Pathology, Experimental Pathology, including immune and inflammatory mechanisms
- Track 2-6Other renal disease-Experimental models
Dialysis, the more common form of kidney-replacement therapy, is a way of cleaning the blood with an artificial kidney. There are two types of dialysis: haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. No matter which type is chosen, the person undergoing dialysis needs to work closely with the health care team to keep diabetes under control.
In hemodialysis, an artificial kidney removes waste from the blood. A surgeon must first create an "access," a place where blood can easily be taken from the body and sent to the artificial kidney for cleaning. The access, usually in the forearm, can be made from the patient's own blood vessels or from a piece of implanted tubing. The access is inside the body and cannot be seen from the outside. Usually, this surgery is done 2 to 3 months before dialysis starts so the body has time to heal.
Another form of dialysis is called peritoneal dialysis. The lining inside your abdomen (the peritoneum) becomes the filter. A soft plastic tube is put into the abdomen by a surgeon. When the body heals, cleansing fluid (dialysate) is put into the abdomen through this tube. Waste products in the bloodstream pass through the peritoneum into the dialysate. Then the dialysate, along with the waste products is drained off.
The two main types of peritoneal dialysis are continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). People perform CAPD themselves by attaching a plastic bag filled with cleansing fluid to the tube in the abdomen and raising it to shoulder level. In CCPD, a machine puts the cleansing fluid into the abdomen and drains it automatically. This is usually done at night during sleep.
- Track 3-1Hemodialysis
- Track 3-2Extracorporeal dialysis: techniques and adequacy
- Track 3-3Vascular access in dialysis
- Track 3-4Psychological disparities in renal dialysis patients
- Track 3-5Complications in dialysis procedures
- Track 3-6Nutrition in dialysis patients
- Track 3-7Amino acid association in dialysis
- Track 3-8Kidney dialysis life expectancy
- Track 3-9Dialysis treatment
- Track 3-10Dialysis diet
- Track 3-11Peritoneal dialysis
- Track 3-12Epidemiology, outcomes and health services research in dialysis
Glomerular disease can occur by itself (eg, affecting only the kidney), or may be associated with an underlying medical condition that affects other organ systems, such as lupus, diabetes, or certain infections. Glomerular disease can develop suddenly (called Acute), or develop slowly over a period of years (called Chronic). Treatment of glomerular disease depends upon its cause and type. Many diseases affect kidney function by attacking the glomeruli, the tiny units within the kidney where blood is cleaned. Glomerular diseases include many conditions with a variety of genetic and environmental causes, but they fall into two major categories:
Glomerulonephritis (gloh-MEHR-yoo-loh-nef-RY-tis) describes the inflammation of the membrane tissue in the kidney that serves as a filter, separating wastes and extra fluid from the blood.
Glomerulosclerosis (gloh-MEHR-yoo-loh-skleh-ROH-sis) describes the scarring or hardening of the tiny blood vessels within the kidney.
Although glomerulonephritis and glomerulosclerosis have different causes, they can both lead to kidney failure.
- Track 4-1Nephrotic Syndrome
- Track 4-2Proteinuria
- Track 4-3Acute, chronic glomerulonephritis
- Track 4-4Drug effects in patients with glomerular disease
- Track 4-5Various guidelines in clinical practice
- Track 4-6Chronic primary glomerulonephritis
- Track 4-7Post Infectious glomerulonephritis
- Track 4-8Idiopathic glomerulonephritis
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called Acute renal failure ( ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days. Acute kidney injury (formerly known as acute renal failure) is a syndrome characterised by the rapid loss of the kidney's excretory function and is typically diagnosed by the accumulation of end products of nitrogen metabolism (urea and creatinine) or decreased urine output, or both. It is the clinical manifestation of several disorders that affect the kidney acutely. Its causes are numerous. Generally it occurs because of damage to the kidney tissue caused by decreased renal blood flow (renalischemia) from any cause (e.g. low blood pressure), exposure to substances harmful to the kidney, an inflammatory process in the kidney, or an obstruction of the urinary tract which impedes the flow of urine. AKI is diagnosed on the basis of characteristic laboratory findings, such as elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, or inability of the kidneys to produce sufficient amounts of urine.
AKI may lead to a number of complications, including metabolic acidosis, high potassium levels, uremia, changes in body fluid balance, and effects on other organ systems, including death. People who have experienced AKI may have an increased risk of chronic kidney disease in the future. Management includes treatment of the underlying cause and supportive care, such as renal replacement therapy.
- Track 5-1Acute renal failure – Experimental models
- Track 5-2Acute renal failure – Diagnosis & management
- Track 5-3Acute tubular necrosis – Diagnosis & management
- Track 5-4Pediatric acute tubular necrosis
- Track 5-5Clinical studies including toxic nephropathy
- Track 5-6Biomarkers of renal impairment
- Track 5-7Hydronephrosis
- Track 5-8Acute glomerulonephritis associated with staphylococcus (optional)
The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure, which are responsible for up to two-thirds of the cases. Diabetes happens when your blood sugar is too high, causing damage to many organs in your body, including the kidneys and heart, as well as blood vessels, nerves and eyes. High blood pressure, or hypertension, occurs when the pressure of your blood against the walls of your blood vessels increases. If uncontrolled, or poorly controlled, high blood pressure can be a leading cause of heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure.
- Track 6-1Renal fibrosis
- Track 6-2Infection (CKD and ESKD)
- Track 6-3Nutrition in CKD and ESKD
- Track 6-4Anaemia in CKD and ESKD
- Track 6-5Acid base and electrolyte abnormalities, protein and cellular physiology
- Track 6-6Tuberculosis associated- Glomerulonephritis
- Track 6-7Non-Diabetic renal disease in diabetes mellitus: clinical features and renal biopsy findings
- Track 6-8Cardiovascular risk in CKD patients
- Track 6-9Diabetes and CKD
- Track 6-10Renal tubular acidosis
- Track 6-11Lupus nephrosis
- Track 6-12Chronic kidney disease diet
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a leading cause of disease and kidney failure (end-stage renal disease)Hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessels and filters in the kidney, making removal of waste from the body difficult. Once a person is diagnosed with end-stage renal disease, dialysis a blood cleansing process or kidney transplantation are necessary. Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them are millions of tiny blood vessels that act as filters. Their job is to remove waste products from the blood. Sometimes this filtering system breaks down.
Diabetes can damage the kidneys and cause them to fail. Failing kidneys lose their ability to filter out waste products, resulting in kidney disease. Diabetes can damage this system. High levels of blood sugar make the kidneys filter too much blood. All this extra work is hard on the filters. After many years, they start to leak and useful protein is lost in the urine. Having small amounts of protein in the urine is called microalbuminuria. When kidney disease is diagnosed early, during microalbuminuria, several treatments may keep kidney disease from getting worse. Having larger amounts of protein in the urine is called macroalbuminuria. When kidney disease is caught later during macroalbuminuria, end-stage renal disease, or ESRD, usually follows.
- Track 7-1Role of hypertension in mortality
- Track 7-2 Hypertensive Emergencies & Urgencies
- Track 7-3Refractory Hypertension
- Track 7-4 Hypertension in High-Risk Populations
- Track 7-5 Secondary Hypertension
- Track 7-6Primary (Essential) Hypertension
- Track 7-7Resistant hypertension
- Track 7-8Uric acid and its role in kidney diseases
- Track 7-9Arterial calcification
- Track 7-10Hypertension- Cause of renal diseases in diabetics
- Track 7-11 Diabetic nephropathy
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys. The kidneys are two organs, each about the size of a fist, located in the upper part of a person's abdomen, toward the back. The kidneys filter wastes and extra fluid from the blood to form urine. They also regulate amounts of certain vital substances in the body. When cysts form in the kidneys, they are filled with fluid. PKD cysts can profoundly enlarge the kidneys while replacing much of the normal structure, resulting in reduced kidney function and leading to kidney failure.
When PKD causes kidneys to fail which usually happens after many years the patient requires dialysis or kidney transplantation. About one-half of people with the most common type of PKD progress to kidney failure, also called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). PKD can also cause cysts in the liver and problems in other organs, such as blood vessels in the brain and heart. The number of cysts as well as the complications they cause help doctors distinguish PKD from the usually harmless "simple" cysts that often form in the kidneys in later years of life.
Two major inherited forms of PKD exist:
Autosomal dominant PKD is the most common inherited form. Symptoms usually develop between the ages of 30 and 40, but they can begin earlier, even in childhood. About 90 percent of all PKD cases are autosomal dominant PKD.
Autosomal recessive PKD is a rare inherited form. Symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD begin in the earliest months of life, even in the womb.
- Track 8-1Role of mutation
- Track 8-2Acquired cystic kidney disease
- Track 8-3Familial Hematurias: Alport syndrome & thin basement membrane nephropathy
- Track 8-4Sickle cell nephropathy
- Track 8-5Fabry disease
- Track 8-6Cystic diseases of the Kidney
- Track 8-7Genetic kidney disease in neonates
- Track 8-8Renal carcinoma
- Track 8-9 Autosomal polycystic kidney disease
- Track 8-10Polycystic Kidney Disease
Tubulointerstitial diseases are clinically heterogeneous disorders that share similar features of tubular and interstitial injury. In severe and prolonged cases, the entire kidney may become involved, with glomerular dysfunction and even renal failure. The primary categories of tubulointerstitial disease are acute tubular necrosis and acute or chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is primary injury to renal tubules and interstitium resulting in decreased renal function. The acute form is most often due to allergic drug reactions or to infections. The chronic form occurs with a diverse array of causes, including genetic or metabolic disorders, obstructive uropathy, and chronic exposure to environmental toxins or to certain drugs and herbs. Diagnosis is suggested by history and urinalysis and often confirmed by biopsy. Treatment and prognosis vary by the etiology and potential reversibility of the disorder at the time of diagnosis.
- Track 9-1Acute pyelonephritis
- Track 9-2Asymptomatic bacteriuria
- Track 9-3 Chronic pyelonephritis
- Track 9-4Hyperoxaluria
- Track 9-5 Nephrocalcinosis
- Track 9-6pyelonephritis empiric therapy
- Track 9-7pyelonephritis organism-Specific therapy
- Track 9-8Tubulointerstitial nephritis
Many kidney diseases can be treated successfully. Careful control of diseases like diabetes and high blood pressure can help prevent kidney disease or keep it from getting worse. Kidney stones and urinary tract infections can usually be treated successfully. Unfortunately, the exact causes of some kidney diseases are still unknown, and specific treatments are not yet available for them. Sometimes, chronic kidney disease may progress to kidney failure, requiring dialysis or kidney transplantation. Treating high blood pressure with special medications called angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors often helps to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. A great deal of research is being done to find more effective treatment for all conditions that can cause chronic kidney disease.
Acute renal failure (kidney failure): A sudden worsening in kidney function. Dehydration, a blockage in the urinary tract, or kidney damage can cause acute renal failure, which may be reversible.
Our Nephrologists 2016 is a remarkable event which brings together a unique and International mix of nephrologists and kidney specialists from leading universities and research institutions making the conference a perfect platform to share experience, foster collaboration across industry and academia, and evaluate emerging technologies across the globe.
- Track 10-1Nephrology nursing
- Track 10-2Advancements in kidney failure and treatment
- Track 10-3Stages of kidney disease and therapy
- Track 10-4Chronic kidney disease diet
- Track 10-5Nephrology dialysis transplantation
- Track 10-6Geriatric nephrology
- Track 10-7Advancements in reverse Kidney
- Track 10-8Pediatric urology
Ultrasound is used to evaluate a person’s native kidneys (the ones you were born with) as well as transplanted kidneys. It can measure the size and appearance of the kidneys and detect tumors, congenital anomalies, swelling and blockage of urine flow. A newer technique called Color Doppler is used to assess clots, narrowing, pseudo-aneurysms—in the arteries and veins—of the original and transplanted kidneys. Renal scintigraphy uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer to evaluate your kidneys’ function and anatomy and determine whether they are working properly. It can provide unique information that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures.
MRI involves a large and powerful magnet. Hydrogen ions in the body are used to obtain pictures of the body parts. But in regard to the kidney, an MRI gives the same information as a CT scan. In the past it was thought that the advantage was that the contrast material called gadolinium, used in an MRI, had no risk of kidney damage. However, gadolinium has now been associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a potentially fatal skin disease in people with decreased kidney function. And, in a small fraction of patients, separate from NSF, gandolinium may decrease glomerular filtration rate (GFR), similar to other contrast dyes. Talk to your physician to find out if an angiogram or CT scan would be a better choice than an MRI.
Angiography is the test of choice for the renal hypertension or high blood pressure caused by narrowing of the renal arteries that carry blood to the kidneys. Initial evaluation could be done by the use of ultrasound. The size of the kidneys and, in expert hands, the Doppler sonography of the renal arteries can help in evaluating narrowing of the arteries (stenosis). CT angiography can also help identify the stenosis, but it is limited in use because of the contrast (dye) agent and the risk of kidney damage with it. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is fast evolving as a pre-screen for angiography. As the technology develops the MRA might be the way to go for renal artery stenosis as this has no risk of contrast nephropathy and it is non-invasive.
- Track 11-1Urinalysis
- Track 11-2Blood Tests
- Track 11-3Kidney Biopsy
- Track 11-4Medical ultrasonography
- Track 11-5computed axial tomography
- Track 11-6Scintigraphy (nuclear medicine)
- Track 11-7Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Track 11-8Recent advancements in renal therapeutics
Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, which means that the damage in the kidneys tends to be permanent and can't be undone. So it is important to identify kidney disease early before the damage is done. The good news is that kidney disease can be treated very effectively if it is caught in the early stages. This is very important, since kidney disease also makes your risks for heart disease and stroke higher.For people who have diabetes, monitoring blood glucose levels is very important. Your health care provider can help you find the right device for doing this if you are diagnosed with diabetes.Controlling blood pressure is also very important for people with kidney disease. There are several types of medicine that help people keep their blood pressure in a healthy range. Two kinds of medicines, ACEi (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) also help to protect the kidneys.
Depending on the underlying cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. Often, though, chronic kidney disease has no cure. In general, treatment consists of measures to help control signs and symptoms, reduce complications, and slow progression of the disease. If your kidneys become severely damaged, you may need treatment for end-stage kidney disease. If your kidneys can't keep up with waste and fluid clearance on their own and you develop complete or near-complete kidney failure, you have End-stage Renal disease. At that point, dialysis or a kidney transplant is needed.
- Track 12-1Pharmacogenomics
- Track 12-2Pediatric kidney diseases and treatment
- Track 12-3Laparoscopy in the treatment of kidney disorders
- Track 12-4Transurethral surgery
- Track 12-5Regenerative medicine treatment
- Track 12-6Environmental aspects in renal care
- Track 12-7Nephrectomy
- Track 12-8Ab mediated treatment
- Track 12-9 rhGH treatment
- Track 12-10Imaging and Radiological techniques
A kidney transplant is an operation in which a person with kidney failure receives a new kidney. The new kidney takes over the work of cleaning the blood. There are two types of kidney transplants: those that come from living donors and those that come from unrelated donors who have died (non-living donors). A living donor may be someone in your family. It may also be your spouse or close friend. In some cases, it may be a stranger who wishes to donate a kidney to anyone in need of a transplant. There are advantages and disadvantages to both types of kidney transplants.
If you have advanced and permanent kidney failure, kidney transplantation may be the treatment option that allows you to live much like you lived before your kidneys failed. Since the 1950s, when the first kidney transplants were performed, much has been learned about how to prevent rejection and minimize the side effects of medicines. But transplantation is not a cure; it's an on going treatment that requires you to take medicines for the rest of your life. And the wait for a donated kidney can be years long. A successful transplant takes a coordinated effort from your whole health care team, including your nephrologist, transplant surgeon, transplant coordinator, pharmacist, dietician, and social worker. But the most important members of your health care team are you and your family. By learning about your treatment, you can work with your health care team to give yourself the best possible results, and you can lead a full, active life.
- Track 13-1Importance of age
- Track 13-2Ethical challenges and organ trade
- Track 13-3Post-operative diet, rehabilitation and recovery
- Track 13-4Renal transplantation in obese patients
- Track 13-5Kidney-pancreas transplant
- Track 13-6Immunosuppressants
- Track 13-7Renal transplantation- contradictions and requirements
- Track 13-8Risk factors for acute rejection and strategies to improve results
- Track 13-9Complications of kidney transplantation
- Track 13-10Microbial infection and diseases
Although medicine cannot reverse chronic kidney disease, it is often used to help treat symptoms and complications and to slow further kidney damage. Most people who have chronic kidney disease have problems with high blood pressure at some time during their disease. Medicines that lower blood pressure help to keep it in a target range and stop any more kidney damage. You may need to try several blood pressure medicines before you find the medicine that controls your blood pressure well without bothersome side effects. Most people need to take a combination of medicines to get the best results. Your doctor may order blood tests 3 to 5 days after you start or change your medicines. The tests help your doctor make sure that your medicines are working correctly.
Medicines may be used to treat symptoms and complications of chronic kidney disease. These medicines include:
Erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy and iron replacement therapy (iron pills or intravenous iron) for anemia.
Medicines for electrolyte imbalances.
Diuretics to treat fluid buildup caused by chronic kidney disease.
ACE inhibitors and ARBs. These may be used if you have protein in your urine (proteinuria) or have heart failure. Regular blood tests are required to make sure that these medicines don't raise potassium levels (hyperkalemia) or make kidney function worse.
Both erythropoietin (rhEPO) therapy and iron replacement therapy may also be used during dialysis to treat anemia, which often develops in advanced chronic kidney disease.
Erythropoietin (rhEPO) stimulates the production of new red blood cells and may decrease the need for blood transfusions. This therapy may also be started before dialysis is needed, when anemia is severe and causing symptoms.
Iron therapy can help increase levels of iron in the body when rhEPO therapy alone is not effective.
Vitamin D helps keep bones strong and healthy.
- Track 14-1 ACE inhibitors.
- Track 14-2Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).
- Track 14-3Beta-blockers.
- Track 14-4Calcium channel blockers
- Track 14-5 Direct renin inhibitors
- Track 14-6Diuretics
- Track 14-7Vasodilators
- Track 14-8Alternative and ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of kidney diseases
Nephrology is the medical specialty which focuses on kidney conditions and abnormalities, involving the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy i.e dialysis and kidney transplantation. A Nephrologist, also called a renal physician, is a medical doctor who specializes in diseases and conditions related to human kidneys. In most cases, patients are referred to Nephrologists by other physicians. Though Nephrology is a subspecialty of internal general medicine, the branch of medicine involved in diagnosing and treating diseases mainly in adults, it also deals with kidney abnormalities in children. Nephrologists diagnose and treat a variety of conditions such as kidney disease, electrolyte disorders, renal failure, high blood pressure and kidney stones. They perform various tests like blood tests, urine tests and biopsies to find out diseases that affect the kidney. Their treatment includes regulation of electrolyte and blood pressure, medication and dialysis. Excluding procedures such as kidney biopsies and catheter placements, they do not do surgery, though they often work closely with urologists who perform medical as well as surgical intervention. Nephrologists must have a solid understanding of nephrology and the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of conditions.
- Track 15-1Nephrologists meeting
- Track 15-2Transplantation Meeting
- Track 15-3Kidney doctors meeting
- Track 15-4Kidney surgeons meeting
- Track 15-5Kidney specialist meeting